When the final vowel of a word is long due to contraction, it receives the stress instead of the preceding syllable. The presence of the Zulu language in South Africa dates from the 14th century A.D. During this period the language adopted many sounds from the San and Khoi languages which were the country’s first inhabitants. The mutual intelligibility of many Nguni languages has increased the likelihood of Zulu becoming the lingua franca of the eastern half of the country. © Copyright 1995-2021 Southafrica.com. The breathy consonant phonemes in Zulu are depressor consonants, or depressors for short. pronouncekiwi. In 1901, John Dube (1871–1946), a Zulu from Natal, created the Ohlange Institute, the first native educational institution in South Africa. A recent Pan South African Language Board survey on Language Use and Language Interaction in South Africa found that Zulu is growing faster as a home language than any of the other languages. For example, the Zulu Washermen's Guild, Amawasha, was active in Natal and the Witwatersrand even before the Union of South Africa was formed in 1910. The statuesque bovine buffalo has an imposing presence which demands a level of respect. Some words, such as ideophones or interjections, can have stress that deviates from the regular pattern. Zulu has become a wide-spread language in Africa. isiZulu is the language of the Zulu people and about 10 million residents are fluent in the language. Zulu is a Bantu language, meaning that it is related to other Bantu languages like Swahili and Chichewa, the language of Malawi. Since the demise of apartheid in 1994, Zulu has been enjoying a marked revival. The Zulu Kingdom was very important in South African history during the 1800s and 1900s. Whenever /w/ follows a labial consonant, it changes to /j/, which then triggers palatalisation of the consonant. Zulu is conventionally written without any indication of tone, but tone can be distinctive in Zulu. The Black African population is heterogeneous, falling mainly into four linguistic categories.The largest is the Nguni, including various peoples who speak Swati (primarily the Swazi peoples) as well as those who speak languages that take their names from the peoples by whom they are primarily spoken—the Ndebele, Xhosa, and Zulu (see also Xhosa language; Zulu language). Before 1994, the official languages of South Africa were English, Dutch, and Afrikaans. etc. John Dube from Natal established the Ohlange Institute in 1901. It is noteworthy that in isiZulu, the names for the numbers six to nine reflect either the anatomical name of the digit (six, isithupha, means ‘thumb’), action (seven, isikhombisa, means ‘the one that points out’), or position/placement (eight, or isishiyagalombili, means ‘two remaining’, and nine, or isishiyagalolunye, indicating ‘one remaining’).[22]. Type your text & get English to Zulu translation instantly Communicate smoothly and use a free online translator to instantly translate words, phrases, or documents between 90+ language pairs. Thus, in syllables with depressor consonants, high tones are realised as rising, and falling tones as rising-then-falling. Moreover, a falling tone can only occur on a long vowel, so the shortening has effects on tone as well. However, in the Kwazulu bantustan the Zulu language was widely used. ummbila /úm̩mbíːla/ "maize" (4 syllables). John Dube proved to be a great pioneer in the written Zulu language, writing the first Zulu novel which he titled “Insila kaShaka”. It is the language of the Zulu people, with about 12 million native speakers, who primarily inhabit the province of KwaZulu-Natal of South Africa. Find upcoming movies and TV shows that speak your language. It is also heard in Gauteng and Mpumalanga. If the next syllable is long, it gets a falling tone, otherwise a regular high tone. The language is understood by more than half of South Africans. As with most of the Bantu migrants, the Zulu adopted many of the language sounds from the Khoi and San, South Africa’s first residents. For example, here is a table with a number of words constructed from the roots -Zulu and -ntu (the root for person/s, people): The following is a list of phrases that can be used when one visits a region whose primary language is Zulu: The following is from the preamble to the Constitution of South Africa: The digital numerical counting etiquette on the fingers begins with the little finger of the left hand to the left thumb, and then continuing with the right-hand thumb towards the right little finger. Due to European influences, many Zulus of the present day are Christians, including both Catholics and Protestants. Xhosa, the predominant language in the Eastern Cape, is often considered mutually intelligible with Zulu, as is Northern Ndebele. Depending on your goal in the language, you may book it for however long you need to reach your goal. When the following syllable already has a high or falling tone, the tone disappears from the syllable as if it had been shifted away, but the following syllable's tone is not modified. Tone, stress and vowel length are not indicated. [9] This occurs only with loanwords. Zulu or isiZulu is the language of the Zulu people. A depressor has no effect on a syllable that's already low, but it blocks assimilation to a preceding high tone, so that the tone of the depressor syllable and any following low-tone syllables stays low. There are 10,677,305 (23.82 %) first language speakers [2001 census data], which makes this the language in South Africa with the most first language speakers. All Rights Reserved. The Zulu language is a member of the Southeastern, or Nguni , subgroup of the Bantu group of the Benue-Congo branch of … Take a trip to South Africa to immerse yourself in the language. There may be some variation between speakers as to whether clusters are broken up by an epenthetic vowel or not, e.g. The Zulu phrases are helpful because they are used daily. According to the 2011 census, there are over 11.5 million Zulu (or isiZulu) mother-tongue speakers in South Africa. Depressor consonants have an effect called tone displacement. The language is understood by more than half of South Africans. Recent loanwords from languages such as English may violate these constraints, by including additional consonant clusters that are not native to Zulu, such as in igremu /iːgreːmu/ "gram". [clarification needed]. Other great names in Zulu literature have included Oswald Mbuyiseni Mtshali, Benedict Wallet Vilakazi and Reginald Dhlomo, who specialized in historical novels based on the lives of Zulu leaders such as Shaka and Dingane. [10], Maho (2009) lists four dialects: central KwaZulu-Natal Zulu, northern Transvaal Zulu, eastern coastal Qwabe, and western coastal Cele.[3]. Today, the Pan South African Language Board supports the use of all 11 official languages of South Africa. Have a fact about Zulu country ? Welcome i-Afrika. It is chiefly spoken in KwaZulu-Natal which is well-known as the Land of the Zulu. [20] The second syllable is thus still lower in pitch than both of the adjacent syllables. It is accompanied by allophonic lengthening of the vowel. When the following syllable also has a depressor consonant. Moreover, sequences of syllabic m and homorganic m can occur, e.g. There are many Zulu radio stations and newspapers available, mostly in the Kwazulu-Natal province and Joha… Zulu syllables are canonically (N)C(w)V[clarification needed], and words must always end in a vowel. We are using cookies to make the website better. Find more Zulu words at wordhippo.com! In addition, syllabic /m̩/ occurs as a reduction of former /mu/, and acts like a true syllable: it can be syllabic even when not word-initial, and can also carry distinctive tones like a full syllable. isiZulu is mostly spoken in and around Kwa-Zulu Natal (see map).There are also a fairly large number of speakers in the Gauteng area. "Language in South Africa: the role of language in national transformation, reconstruction and development", "Ukwabelana - An open-source morphological Zulu corpus", "Oscar nomination for SA film - Brand South Africa", "The salience and symbolism of numbers across cultural beliefs and practice", "Structural characteristics of Zulu English", The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Zulu, A short English–isiZulu–Japanese phraselist, Zulu Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words, Zulu With Dingani - Online beginner's course, University Of South Africa, free online course, isiZulu.net Zulu–English Online Dictionary, Spell checker for OpenOffice.org and Mozilla, Commission for Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Community Rights, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Zulu_language&oldid=1001112184, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from August 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2016, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The phonology of Zulu is characterized by a simple vowel inventory and a complex system of consonants. Forming part of the Nguni group of the Bantu languages, Zulu and Xhosa are mutually understandable. A few examples of Zulu words used in South African English: Proportion of the South African population that speaks Zulu at home. The Zulu are the single largest ethnic group in South Africa and numbered about nine million in the While the Z… The changes can be summed as follows:[18][19]. As in other Bantu languages, Zulu nouns are classified into, Its verbal system shows a combination of temporal and aspectual categories in their finite paradigm. No change when the following consonant is itself a nasal. pronouncekiwi - How To Pronounce Zulu country. He was also the author of Insila kaShaka, the first novel written in Zulu (1930). However, when it shortens, the falling tone becomes disallowed in that position. The penultimate syllable can also bear a falling tone when it is long due to the word's position in the phrase. In some cases, there are morphemic alternations that occur as a result of word position as well. However, like most other Bantu languages, Zulu has word tone, meaning that the pattern of tones acts more like a template to assign tones to individual syllables, rather than a direct representation of the pronounced tones themselves. If tone pitch is indicated with numbers, with 1 highest and 9 lowest pitch, then the pitches of each syllable can be denoted as 2-4-3-9. While palatalisation occurred historically, it is still productive, and occurs as a result of the addition of suffixes beginning with /j/. Palatal approximant becomes palatal nasal. Zulu-language television was introduced by the SABC in the early 1980s and it broadcasts news and many shows in Zulu. That amounts to 22.7% of the population. Spoken by some 10 million individuals, most of whom reside in South Africa, Zulu is the home language of 24% of South Africans and is understood by more than 50% of the country's inhabitants. Another pioneering Zulu writer was Reginald Dhlomo, author of several historical novels of the 19th-century leaders of the Zulu nation: U-Dingane (1936), U-Shaka (1937), U-Mpande (1938), U-Cetshwayo (1952) and U-Dinizulu (1968). Other countries in Africa in which Zulu is spoken are Swaziland and Lesotho, which are South Africa’s very close neighbours. A toneless syllable between a high-tone syllable and another tonic syllable assimilates to that high tone. Prenasalisation triggers several changes in the following consonant, some of which are phonemic and others allophonic. /ɛ/ and /ɔ/ are pronounced [e] and [o], respectively, if a following syllable contains the [+ATR] vowels /i/ or /u/. The town has ... SouthAfrica.com. Over 50% of the population also speak and understand the language. Certain words are also used in Standard English, particularly animal names such as mamba and impala. Indigenous languages were oral languages up until missionaries arrived from Europe. Different prefixes can be attached to these verbal stems to specify subject agreement and various degrees of past or future tense. In both cases, the pitch does not reach as high as in non-depressed syllables. Tone displacement is blocked under the following conditions: Whenever tone displacement is blocked, this results in a depressor syllable with high tone, which will have the low-tone onset as described above. After Apartheid ended in 1994, Zulu became one of the official languages in South Africa. This feature is shared with several other languages of Southern Africa, but it is very rare in other regions. ( medicine ) and indaba ( conference ) besides isiZulu, which then triggers palatalisation of the first feature! 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