With the expensive disasters of the Anglo-Dutch War of 1665–67 the reputation of the restored king sank to its lowest … In exchange, Charles agreed to supply Louis with troops and to announce his conversion to Catholicism "as soon as the welfare of his kingdom will permit". (3 vols., Camden Soc., 1884– 1885), III, 131 (Lauderdale)Google Scholar; Essex Papers, ed. [71], Charles suffered a sudden apoplectic fit on the morning of 2 February 1685, and died aged 54 at 11:45 am four days later at Whitehall Palace. "figures": false, 608–10). [19], After the death of Cromwell in 1658, Charles's initial chances of regaining the Crown seemed slim; Cromwell was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son, Richard. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, and Charles was invited to return to Britain. 104 Barrillon to Louis XIV, 4 and 11 Nov. 1680, 13 Jan. 1681 (n.s. In their talks, Henrietta told Louis XIV that Charles II wanted England and France to become allies. Charles raised a ragtag army from his exiled subjects; this small, underpaid, poorly-equipped and ill-disciplined force formed the nucleus of the post-Restoration army. The later entries are fuller and appear accurate. Marshall J. 166–7; Witcombe, , Charles II, ch. Find the perfect charles parliament stock photo. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. Charles II was the monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland during much of the latter half of the 17th century, marking the Restoration era. 111 C.J., IX, 643, 670, 692, 695; Grey, , Debates, VIII, 21, 294Google Scholar. 55 Marvell, , Poems and Letters, II, 2Google Scholar. The Acts became known as the Clarendon Code, after Lord Clarendon, even though he was not directly responsible for them and even spoke against the Five Mile Act.[33]. Cromwell became virtual dictator of England, Scotland and Ireland. (Glasgow, 1936), pp. 124 Grey, , Debates, VIII, 279Google Scholar. The bishop of London was suspended from his office for not taking action against an anti-Catholic preacher. 45 Grey, , Debates, II, 201Google Scholar; V, 23; C.J., IX, 159–60, 167, 382–3; Marvell, , Poems and Letters, II, 111Google Scholar. [3] At birth, Charles automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay, along with several other associated titles. When the Convention Parliament met in March 1660 there was still some doubt about what action it would take to settle the country, and what influence the army under General Monck would have. 89 Diaiy of John Milward, pp. Montrose feared that Charles would accept a compromise, and so chose to invade mainland Scotland anyway. At around the same time, Anne Hyde, the daughter of the Lord Chancellor, Edward Hyde, revealed that she was pregnant by Charles's brother, James, whom she had secretly married. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, "England was overjoyed at having a monarch again." For the most part, the actual revenue was much lower, which led to attempts to economise at court by reducing the size and expenses of the royal household[29] and raise money through unpopular innovations such as the hearth tax. As a result, in his lifetime he was often nicknamed "Old Rowley", the name of his favourite racehorse, notable as a stallion.[82]. 113 C.J., IX, 692, 697, 702; H.M.C. 255–6)Google Scholar. 1675–6, pp. Whose word no man relies on, [48], In 1668, England allied itself with Sweden, and with its former enemy the Netherlands, to oppose Louis XIV in the War of Devolution. Looking back on Charles's reign, Tories tended to view it as a time of benevolent monarchy whereas Whigs perceived it as a terrible despotism. 54, 93, 97, 259 60; H.M.C., Beaufort, p. 112Google Scholar; Grey, , Debates, VII, 453Google Scholar; VIII, 278; see also Elton, G. R., The Tudor Constitution (Cambridge, 1960), pp. The English Parliament recognised Charles as king by unanimous vote on 2 May 1660, and he was proclaimed king in London on 8 May, although royalists had recognised him as such since the execution of his father on 30 January 1649. 21 Reresby, , Memoirs, p. 111Google Scholar and passim. Prince Charles was the king's eldest son. "newCiteModal": false, 98 Even Sacheverell said that, in Edward III's time, the Commons represented the people's poverty to the king ‘then left it to the king, as he would do now’ (Grey, , Debates, III, 344)Google Scholar. Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views. VIIIGoogle Scholar. Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands. While Danby seems to have been rightly sceptical about Oates's claims, the Cavalier Parliament took them seriously. 47 Ibid., III, 41–2, 309, 318–19, 343, 455–8; IV, 227; VII, 45. He never said a foolish thing, Beaufort, p. 111Google Scholar; Exact Collection, pp. 120 Grey, , Debates, VIII, 168–71Google Scholar. With Cromwell's forces threatening Charles's position in Scotland, it was decided to mount an attack on England. 67 An impeachment was prepared against Arlington only after an address against him had been rejected (C.J., IX, 296). [69] Titus Oates was convicted and imprisoned for defamation. Charles's coat of arms as Prince of Wales was the royal arms (which he later inherited), differenced by a label of three points Argent. My text is taken from Macaulay, who wrote of the Cavalier Parliament of 1661–78: 12 February 2009. 1 Macaulay, T. B., History of England, ed. 7 Diary of John Milward, pp. The prospect of a Catholic monarch was vehemently opposed by Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury (previously Baron Ashley and a member of the Cabal, which had fallen apart in 1673). No need to register, buy now! Some ‘tacks’ were approved by the House and reached the statute book (Chandaman, , English Public Revenue, pp. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth, George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland, Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland, treaty agreed between him and the Scots Parliament, Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth, depicted extensively in art, literature and media, Edward Radclyffe, 2nd Earl of Derwentwater, Elizabeth Berkeley, née Bagot, Dowager Countess of Falmouth, Francis I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, "Proclamation: of King Charles II, 5 January 1649 (NAS. 138 Exact Collection, p. 47; see also C.J., IX, 685; Grey, , Debates, VIII, 163, 166–7Google Scholar. Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code even though he favoured a policy of religious tolerance. 38 B.L., Egerton MS 2539, fo. 90 Grey, , Debates, II, 110Google Scholar; C.J., IX, 276, 278; see also C.J., VIII, 104. Jnl, xxii (1979), 255–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Russell, C., ‘Parliamentary History in Perspective, 1604–29’, History, lxi (1976), 1– 27CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Russell, C., Parliaments and English Politics 1621–9 (Oxford, 1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar. 48– 50, 146–7Google Scholar. However, with insufficient funds voted by Parliament, Charles was forced to gradually disband his troops. 191 2; Grey, , Debates, I, 85Google Scholar. Today it is possible to assess him without the taint of partisanship, and he is seen as more of a lovable rogue—in the words of his contemporary John Evelyn, "a prince of many virtues and many great imperfections, debonair, easy of access, not bloody or cruel". [43], The same year, in an unpopular move, Charles sold Dunkirk to his first cousin King Louis XIV of France for about £375,000. "shouldUseHypothesis": true, After Charles I's execution at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War, the Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649. Find the perfect charles i parliament stock photo. Having lost the support of Parliament, Danby resigned his post of Lord High Treasurer, but received a pardon from the king. [65], Fearing that the Exclusion Bill would be passed, and bolstered by some acquittals in the continuing Plot trials, which seemed to him to indicate a more favourable public mood towards Catholicism, Charles dissolved the English Parliament, for a second time that year, in mid-1679. (2015). If you should have access and can't see this content please, English Constitutional Conflicts of the Seventeenth Century, Parliament in the Sixteenth Century: Functions and Fortunes, Parliamentary History in Perspective, 1604–29, The Parliamentary Diary of Sir Edward Dering, 1670–3, An exact Collection of the Debates of the House of Commons held at Westminster, October 21 1680, The Debates in the House of Commons Assembled at Oxford, Sir Richard Temple, the Pickthank Undertaker, Charles II and the Cavalier House of Commons, The Growth of Responsible Government in Stuart England, Letters addressed from London to Sir Joseph Williamson, The Whig Theory of the Constitution in the Reign of Charles II, Brief Historical Relation of State Affairs, Politics and the Appointment of Justices of the Peace, 1675–1720, Proceedings of the House of Commons touching the Impeachment of Edward, late Earl of Clarendon. Hutton says Charles was a popular king in his own day and a "legendary figure" in British history. [76] He told his courtiers, "I am sorry, gentlemen, for being such a time a-dying",[77] and expressed regret at his treatment of his wife. The Debates in the House of Commons Assembled at Oxford (London, 1681)Google Scholar, reprinted in the Exact Collection, is basically the same as Grey, despite numerous minor verbal differences. 18–36Google Scholar; Miller, J., James II: A Study in Kingship (Hove, 1978), pp. Charles attempted to introduce religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his 1672 Royal Declaration of Indulgence, but the English Parliament forced him to withdraw it. The escapades of Charles after his defeat at the Battle of Worcester remained important to him throughout his life. [89] Charles II is depicted extensively in art, literature and media. [102], 17th-century monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland, Coat of arms of Charles II as king (outside Scotland), Coat of arms of Charles II used as king in Scotland, The traditional date of the Restoration marking the first assembly of King and Parliament together since the abolition of the English monarchy in 1649. Charles II and Parliament: The Restoration of 1660 was a restoration of both the King and the Parliament. (2013). James was eventually dethroned in 1688, in the course of the Glorious Revolution. 71 Grey, , Debates, V, 243Google Scholar. 45, 397. Although previously favourable to the Crown, the Cavalier Parliament was alienated by the king's wars and religious policies during the 1670s. 82 Ibid. [44] The channel port, although a valuable strategic outpost, was a drain on Charles's limited finances.[e]. 25 Grey, , Debates, VI, 145, 152–3, 359–64Google Scholar. However, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic led by Oliver Cromwell. }, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. "hasAccess": "0", The bodies of Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton and John Bradshaw were subjected to the indignity of posthumous decapitations. Cavalier Parliament, (May 8, 1661—Jan. 39 Bryant, A., Samuel Pepys, the years of Peril (London, 1948), pp. [67], Charles's opposition to the Exclusion Bill angered some Protestants. 20 But not in 1680 when he told the Lord Chancellor not to mention money (H.M.C., Finch, II, 90)Google Scholar. 130 For a perceptive analysis of the inconsistencies in the Whigs' ideology, see Behrens, ‘Whig Theory’. The death toll reached a peak of 7,000 per week in the week of 17 September. "clr": true, Though not averse to his escape being ascribed to divine providence, Charles himself seems to have delighted most in his ability to sustain his disguise as a man of ordinary origins, and to move unrecognised through his realm. Browning, A. 338–40, 343–9, 35–5. His father was Charles I of England, who was executed after losing a war with Parliament. 17 Grey, , Debates, III, 127Google Scholar; Dering, , Diaries and Papers, p. 175Google Scholar. [25], In the latter half of 1660, Charles's joy at the Restoration was tempered by the deaths of his youngest brother, Henry, and sister, Mary, of smallpox. The grant, however, proved to be insufficient for most of Charles's reign. The Scots rebelled, assembled a huge army, and threatened to invade England. Charles II was the eldest surviving child of Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and Henrietta Maria of France. 13 Such executive functions as the Cavalier Parliament performed were limited to completing tasks begun by the Convention (C.J., VIII, 318, 384). } Partly to assuage public fears that the royal family was too Catholic, Charles agreed that James's daughter, Mary, should marry the Protestant William of Orange. My text is taken from Macaulay, who wrote of the Cavalier Parliament of 1661–78: ‘The great English revolution of the seventeenth century, that is to say the transfer of the supreme control of the executive administration from the crown to the House of Commons, was, through the whole long existence of this Parliament, proceeding noiselessly, but rapidly and steadily. Charles II was intelligent and concerned with his duties, but he also believed in fun. Charles lived a life of leisure at Saint-Germain-en-Laye near Paris,[14] living on a grant from Louis XIV of 600 livres a month. He died in the Roman Catholic faith. 99–100; Grey, , Debates, VIII, 100, 102Google Scholar. 108 C.J., IX, 617–18. 44 It was still functioning in March 1671 (C.J., IX, 219). [8] Her son, James Crofts (afterwards Duke of Monmouth and Duke of Buccleuch), was one of Charles's many illegitimate children who became prominent in British society.[2]. Ironic and cynical, Charles took pleasure in retailing stories which demonstrated the undetectable nature of any inherent majesty he possessed. The major foreign policy issue of his early reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War. He was the playboy monarch, naughty but nice, the hero of all who prized urbanity, tolerance, good humour, and the pursuit of pleasure above the more earnest, sober, or material virtues.[88]. Moderate English Royalists were opposed to an alliance with the Covenanters, but Charles' appeals to other European heads of state for military help against the new republican government of England came to nothing. ), P.R.O., Baschet, 124 (Carteret); Lauderdale Papers, ed. A merry monarch, scandalous and poor.[86]. Charles II, afraid that his powerful neighbour might try and invade England, sent his sister Henrietta to talk to Louis XIV of France. Despite his son's diplomatic efforts to save him, King Charles I was beheaded in January 1649, and England became a republic. 46 Grey, , Debates, I, 273, 315, 394Google Scholar; IV, 227. It was originally enthusiastically royalist in tone, but over the years its membership changed and it became increasingly critical of many of Charles’s policies. (P.R.O., Baschet, 128); Temple, , Memoirs, p. 277Google Scholar. For a similar investigation in 1661, see Ibid., pp. Charles II dissolved Parliament itself on 24 January 1679 after conflict occurred following his dealings with France and his efforts to become an absolute ruler. 24 Reresby, , Memoirs, p. 112Google Scholar; SirTemple, W., Memoirs, 1675–9 (London, 1692), p. 277Google Scholar; Cal. Charles promised to abide by the laws of Parliament. Ralph Montagu wentinto opposition only after losing office. Charles was baptised in the Chapel Royal, on 27 June, by the Anglican Bishop of London, William Laud. The brief diaries in H.M.C., Beaufort, pp. After 1660, all legal documents stating a regnal year did so as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649. Airy, O. The Conventicle and Five Mile Acts remained in effect for the remainder of Charles's reign. 568. This gathered Spanish support for a restoration in return for Charles's contribution to the war against France. One thousand pounds was a vast sum at the time, greater than an average workman's lifetime earnings. Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector and head of state. [64], Charles faced a political storm over his brother James, a Catholic, being next in line to the throne. 9 Grey, , Debates, II, 68Google Scholar; Roberts, C., ‘Sir Richard Temple, the Pickthank Undertaker’, Huntington Library Quarterly, xli (1977– 1988), 137–55Google Scholar. His era became widely known as … 35 The House investigated the yield of the duties on wines in 1669 before voting more (C.J., IX, 115, 117). 16, 21, 25, etc. House of Lords, 1678–88, pp. His eighth birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim,! '' and `` hypocrisy '' of the Kings ’ speeches in chapter three however is very. ] at birth, Charles faced a political storm over his intention to.... 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