No. To avoid parallels, try to use mostly contrary motion, especially between the bass and the other voice parts. At a young age, he established a reputation for his great creativity and ability to integrate foreign styles into his organ works. Bach," Journal of Music Theory, Vol. Remember that these must all be prepared and resolved. In Bach chorales however, the leading tone may resolve to the fifth of the tonic. Most of Bach's chorale harmonizations have frequent passing and neighbor tones. If you able to find the end of each phrase, then you can successfully mark them using the correct chord progressions. Never double the third of a chord unless it is called for by voice-leading or in the vii6 chord, Never double the leading note of the key that you're in. In 1700 he moved to Luneburg, where he joined the choir of the Michaeliskirche (Church of San Michele) as a soprano. You can usually always get the 7th in, so if this is the case leave the suspension out but put in the 7th. There are over 1000 known compositions by Bach. If any given material contains prominent stylistic features (excessive passing notes, suspensions etc. An added 7th is a common (and stylistic) feature of the final cadence as well as throughout the phrase. They should fit into the chorale melody, and have logical chord progressions. Johann Sebastian Bach was a well known German composer, organist, harpsichordist and violinist as he also set the rules and standard for particular four-part harmony writing. A chorale prelude includes the melody of the chorale, with added counterpoint. Also, check that the Alto part does not go higher than the Soprano part in any chords, and same with Tenor and Alto and Bass and Tenor. Understanding harmonizing chorale in the style of Bach These include the chorale motet form, the choral fantasia form, and the chorale fughetta form. https://kipkis.com/index.php?title=Harmonise_a_Chorale_in_the_Style_of_Bach&oldid=27601, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 License. Burns, Lori. The second is known as the passing 6-4. Students of theoretical music today have extensively made the style of Bach as the standard to write their theories of music. Description. The example below explains these 'hidden' or 'exposed' octaves - the same can happen with fifths. Using primary chords is also a very good method towards understanding the art of harmonizing a chorale in the style of Bach. Studying different collections of Bach chorales is important if you want to learn about harmonizing a chorale in his style. To get the correct spacing between parts, think of the soprano, alto and tenor as being within a 12th of each other, at most; the bass part can be any interval below the tenor. You may modulate more than once. Johann Sebastian Bach's vocal music includes cantatas, motets, masses, Magnificats, Passions, oratorios, four-part chorales, songs and arias.His instrumental music includes concertos, suites, sonatas, fugues, and other works for organ, harpsichord, lute, violin, viola da gamba, cello, flute, chamber ensemble and orchestra.. Four verses from the Epistle are set in motet style, two for five voices, and two for three voices. This unique and varied style of writing later was called the style of Bach. The progression Ib-Vc-I must have the notes: doh-ti-doh in one inner part, and so-so-so in the other. Look at accidentals. The median value (standard deviation) for every feature in the grading function, as well as the overall grade, for Bach chorales and generated chorales. With a closed related key, it will become easy for any musician to harmonize a chorale in the style of Bach. Chorales also appear in chorale preludes, pieces generally for organ designed to be played immediately before the congregational singing of the hymn. This may affect other chords near it so double check for fifths or octaves again. Good part writing is very important. In Bach chorales however, the leading tone may resolve to the fifth of the tonic. The neural nets concentrate on the creative part of the task, being responsible for aesthetic conformance to the standard set by Bach in nearly 400 examples. This style of writing music is also very popular among renowned musicians and composers. This is hardest to check between the middle two parts since they are on different staves. Before actually learning how to harmonizing a chorale in the style of Bach, you should thoroughly try to understand it. It was a predominant style of the German Baroque era and reached its culmination in the works of J.S. The complexity of Bach’s harmony is made plain as each chorale is treated much like a jazz chord chart would be. None [force assignment] Movements/Sections Mov'ts/Sec's: 389 chorale-settings Listing of Bach's Chorale Settings; First Pub lication. integral to Bach’s musical style—“With this information, we can better know when and to where … to modulate at phrase endings if we want to simulate the Bach chorale style…” (de Clercq, 2015, p. 191). The chorale motet style is characterized by imitative lines whereas the fantasia form is more virtuosic in style with rapid runs and arpeggios. It will certainly enhance your knowledge about writing music in other forms as well. Diminished 7th chords and half diminished 7ths are frequent in minor keys, as are all sorts of secondary dominants. IVb-Ic-IV is used for a part of a chorale melody going: fa-so-la. No chord types are without an example in the Bach chorales, although augmented triads, Neapolitans, and chords of the augmented 6th are uncommon, belonging more to later stylistic periods. Bach's many chorale preludes are the best-known examples of the form. The sensitivity to parallels in the simple texture of Bach's chorale style means that even similar motion to a fifth or octave can give the impression of parallels. As each chord generally has 3 notes, one note must be doubled. In the penultimate chord of the phrase (chord V), one of the inner parts steps down onto the 7th of the chord before resolving in the final chord I (to the third). There are 4 vocal parts in a Bach chorale. This page was last modified on 19 March 2017, at 08:41. There are often desirable chord progressions that you should include to gain the maximum number of marks. If you must harmonize a repetition of the chorale melody, a variation in the harmony is preferable. These marks indicate where you should put your cadences. After a cadence, you can switch straight back into the home key, although it's more usual to modulate back again. Bach's treatment of the chorale tune ranges from a four-part setting which begins and ends the work, to a chorale fantasia and a free setting which only paraphrases the tune. The soprano and alto parts should stay within an octave of one another. Sometimes suspensions will not fit as the voicing will not be nice or wrong, depending on what key you are in. I-Vc-Ib is used for a part of a chorale melody going: mi-re-doh. Most chorales have similar cadential progressions. Burns, Lori. If there are any chords that sound dissonant or wrong then rework them. This consists of either the progression IV-Ic-IVb, IVb-Ic-IV, Ib-Vc-I or I-Vc-Ib. The progression IV-Ic-IVb must have the notes: fa-mi-fa in one inner part, and doh-doh-doh in the other. Required fields are marked *, Prove You\'re Human * If you're studying harmony, then you will probably encounter Bach chorales sooner or later. Understand how a chorale works. Voices should avoid crossing, but can cross other voices for melodic effect. The chorale cantata developed out of the chorale concerto, an earlier form much used by Samuel Scheidt in the early 17th century, which incorporated elements of the Venetian School, such as the concertato style, into the liturgical music of the Protestant Reformation. Play it (or get someone to play it for you) on a piano and listen carefully. This is called Tierce di Picardie (Picardie Third) and is typical of Bach's chorale writing. 38, No. We use a standard data set of chorale harmonisations composed by Johann Sebastian Bach. This will normally be a perfect authentic cadence (V-I with both chords in root position), though one shouldn't rule out the possibility of plagal (IV-I) cadences though this is extremely rare. The melodies are recognisable, and are divided into phrases, which are identified by pause marks. More complex chorale settings came from Johan Eccard and Michael Praetorius.Eccard’s chorale settings are virtually brief motets, and Praetorius was one of the first systematic arrangers in polyphonic style of tunes from earlier sources (Musae Sioniae, 1610).For these and for later German hymnody, see hymn. Second inversion chords should be avoided, although cadential 6-4s are frequent in Bach's writing (Ic-V-I),and passing 6-4s are not at all uncommon. The best progressions could include a cycle of fifths (vi-ii7b-V7-I), or a cadential 6-4 ((ii7b)-Ic-V7-I). Passing tones can create parallels, but they can't hide them! ), it is preferable to use these in your harmonizations. Johann Sebastian Bach, (born March 21 [March 31, New Style], 1685, Eisenach, Thuringia, Ernestine Saxon Duchies [Germany]—died July 28, 1750, Leipzig), composer of the Baroque era, the most celebrated member of a large family of north German musicians.Although he was admired by his contemporaries primarily as an outstanding harpsichordist, organist, and expert on organ building, Bach … In music, a chorale prelude or chorale setting is a short liturgical composition for organ using a chorale tune as its basis. Bach , who wrote 46 (with a 47th unfinished ) examples of the form in his Orgelbüchlein , [1] along with multiple other works of the type in other collections . Suspensions, like all foreign tones, have to be prepared and resolved. PDF | On Jan 1, 2008, A. Chilvers and others published Chorale Harmonization in the Style of J.S. Paying attention to the subject is very important as only then will you grasp the whole objective of the importance of writing a harmony in the style of Bach. These add more style and sophistication to the chorale. Many second inversion chords have a doubled bass note. Bach chorales, from music theorists and theory students interested in studying the Bach chorale style or in using the chorales in the classroom, to musicologists and Bach scholars interested in the most up-to-date research on the chorales, to choral directors and organists interested in performing the chorales, to amateur Bach-lovers alike. Go through and check all pairs of voices making sure that the two parts never move up or down in perfect fifths, octaves, or in unison. Your email address will not be published. Ib-Vc-I is used for a part of a chorale melody going: doh-re-mi. A Grading Function for Chorales in the Style of J.S. Never make a melodic leap of an augmented interval. Suspensions, like … Parallel perfect fifths, octaves and unisons are extremely rare in Bach chorales, as they lead away from independent motion in individual parts and generally sound awful. Your email address will not be published. 1898 - Leipzig: Bach's organ chorales can be classified into several forms. 1 (Spring 1994), pp.43–77. Bach was also very famous for modulating chords. Surprisingly, given the copious support garnered in favor of the probability-style position since Meyer’s Chorale Melodies used in Bach's Vocal Works Sorted by Title : This section of the Bach Cantatas Website (BCW) provides a comprehensive list of all the chorale melodies [hereafter referred to simply as ‘CM’s] in Bach’s oeuvre. A decidedly North German influence was exerted by Georg Böhm, with whom Bach came into contact in Lüneburg, and Dieterich Buxtehude, who… Each chord must contain the root (which is often doubled), the third and the fifth. Here's a guide teaching you the basics. ChoraleGUIDE: harmonising Bach chorales ChoraleGUIDE.com is a web resource for learning about writing four-part harmony in the style of J.S. algorithms and neural networks to compose four part chorales in the style of J .S. Modulating chords whenever possible • Bach Chorales are meant to be sung by four part harmony – SATB, originally for Lutheran churches in Germany. Fed up with the endless rules? The central movement is a five-part fugue. Start by harmonizing the final cadence. If the chorale melody allows it, use a cycle of fifths (vi-ii7b-V7-I, or simply vi-ii-V-I) for a final perfect cadence. The history and evolution with the 16th century and its growth with so many other musicians contributions, you will need to understand the whole aspect of Bach to fully comprehend things. Many experienced musicians also say that it is the very best way to understand this complex form of writing music. Bach Chorales: A Guide. Period: Baroque: Piece Style Baroque: Instrumentation mixed chorus (SATB) External Links Wikipedia article bach-chorales.com: Extra Information Publication timeline to 1843 Bach Chorale Harmonization and Instrumental Counterpoint. Bach expanded on this concept in the chorale prelude, "Nun Danket Alle Gott", which appeared as a chorale setting in Cantata 80, "Gott der Herr ist Sonn’ und Schild". Avoid doubling the third of the chord. It has been written for A2 students at King Edward VI College in Stourbridge, and is suitable for A level (particularly Edexcel) and first year undergraduate study. These progressions were used less frequently by Bach, but the contrary motion between the bass part and the chorale melody means that the chances of parallels occurring is greatly minimized. Chorale is the name of several related musical forms originating in the music genre of the Lutheran chorale : The progression Ic-V-I, whilst being a more common feature of Classical music, is by no means out of place in a Bach chorale, and is in itself a very good progression. London: Kahn & Averill, 1999 (republished volume of two essays from 1967). Use primary chords prevalently If the chorale tune indicates a modulation (accidentals are sometimes trigger signs), then your cadences must be in the modulated key. A universal exception is in the vii6 chord, where the 3rd is to be doubled in preference to the 5th, which can also be doubled. Consequently, you could learn to make a well working harmonisation af a The progression IVb-Ic-IV must have the notes: fa-mi-fa in one inner part, and doh-doh-doh in the other. The tests are progressive, as follows: In Chorales 1-4, only the bass part is … We can see that the model struggles with avoiding parallelisms. Bach’s Modal Chorales. Universities around the world and especially institutes which teach music always highly regard Bach in the way he could harmonize a chorale. Original Bach Chorales are used as training data. Bach chorales are the perfect style in which to learn the fine points of proper piano pedaling, which Rubinstein referred to as "the soul of the piano." This book was written by the celebrated composer and music theorist Johann Fux in 1725. The first is the use of the bass line, as opposed to the melody, as the primary input into a chorale-harmonization algorithm. You will see that you are getting closer to fully understanding to write and harmonize in the style of Bach. Studying different collection of Bach chorales Don't let the parts overlap or cross over. In most harmony work, you must always make the leading tone of the key when used in a dominant chord (V(7), vii(7)) rise to the tonic at the change of chord. The best notes to double are the root and fifth of the chord. The progression I-Vc-Ib must have the notes: doh-ti-doh in one inner part, and so-so-so in the other. This unique and varied style of writing later was called the style of Bach. For the group of singers, see choir. 389 Chorale Settings Alt ernative. Bach (1685 - 1750), given the one part melody. (Although a 7th does not have to be prepared it it falls on the second quaver of a beat.) Bach was best known during his lifetime as an organist, organ consultant, and composer of organ works in both the traditional German free genres—such as preludes, fantasias, and toccatas—and stricter forms, such as chorale preludes and fugues. 8) Two additional settings (BWV 500a, 1084) come from the St. Mark Passion Pasticcio, the authenticity of which settings is questioned (and which I personally have come to doubt due to divergences from the Bach chorale style), despite the fact that they have been assigned BWV numbers. Also add in any passing notes, anticipation notes and echappe notes that you can. A2 Music – Bach Chorales A2 Music – Bach Chorales A2 Music Bach Chorales These 20 chorale exercises (with solutions) are intended for use in preparation for EdExcel A2 tests. Chorale melodies were sung by a congregation in Lutheran churches in parts of Germany. How to Harmonize a Chorale in the Style of Bach, How to Make Skinhead Bleachers Bleached Pants. Find the key of the piece and other parts to distinguish possible points of modulation (you will want to modulate at least 2-3 in your chorale). Lower values represent better chorales. Johann Sebastian Bach was a well known German composer, organist, harpsichordist and violinist as he also set the rules and standard for particular four-part harmony writing. + six = 11. To understand the vocal polyphony and long provided basis for comprehending the entire classical music genre in all of the world's leading conservatoires, Beethoven and studies of Bach are well recognised and highly respected. In most harmony work, you must always make the leading tone of the key when used in a dominant chord (V(7), vii(7)) rise to the tonic at the change of chord. Go through and try to put in any suspensions (the most common are 4-3 in the Alto at a cadence and a 7-6 in the Tenor in the middle) and dissonances such as 7ths. Modulate only to closely related keys (keys whose key signature is one accidental away from the home key's, or to the relative key). • Melodies should be something easy to sing with a recognisable tune. Bach did this only when it was demanded by voice leading, but did his best to conceal it. Bach occasionally used parallel 5ths or octaves, but they are rare and hidden with the skill of an expert. If you are harmonizing  from the bassline, make sure that the soprano (top) part has melodic interest. Bach composed around 30 and reharmonised around 400 melodies, so we have quite a large material to search through. This influential 1158–page songbook was considered to be the most important Pietist hymnal of the day, featuring a more modern, freer style of chorale similar to those featured in the 1736 Schemelli Gesangbuch settings to which Bach was a contributor. In this article, a combination of two novel approaches to the harmonization of chorales in the style of J. S. Bach is proposed, implemented, and profiled. Bach. IV-Ic-IVb is used for a part of a chorale melody going: la-so-fa. The alto and tenor parts should stay within an octave of one another. Fill in the rest of the chords. In minor chorales, you may end the final cadence (which will usually be a perfect cadence) on the major tonic (i.e., with a raised third). Although intended to teach 16th Century style counterpoint, it is a worthwhile exercise for anyone learning counterpoint from the ground up. Abstract This dissertation describes a chorale harmonisation system which uses Hidden Markov Models. Second inversions can be used under two main circumstances: the first, the cadential 6-4, you have already encountered. Bach composed many chorales of incredible beauty; the way he harmonized for four voices was impeccable, and his chorales served as the textbook for studying Western harmony for over 100 years. J. S. Bach Biography. Bach Table 1. This is the main part so it must have the tune. Basically many students of music do not understand fully about writing a harmony in the style of Bach as it has many complexities in it. Bach, A Machine Learning Approach | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate This article is about hymn-related or hymn-like musical settings. Johann Fux - 'Gradus ad Parnassum'. The modern musician who may not be so familiar with music theory and harmonic analysis will still benefit from this edition of the Bach chorales as each chord is identified above the staff with modern chord symbolism. • These melodies are broken up into phrases, which are identified by pause marks – this is where you put your cadences. Look through the rest of the part you have to harmonize, work out possible chords, and lightly pencil them in, starting with the cadences, and then move on to the remaining chords. The emphasis is rather on voice-leading than harmonic progressions, however. "Modal Identity and Irregular Endings in Two Chorale Harmonizations by J.S. Johann Sebastian Bach was born on 14/03/1685 in Eisenach in a family of musicians, remained orphan at 10 years of age he was educated by his older brother who gave him organ and harpsichord lessons. Bach or Mock? Title Composer Bach, Johann Sebastian: I-Catalogue Number I-Cat. The chorales of Bach are much more complex than the simple style found in [1], but also Bach’s techniques can be made rather concrete. 1765, 1769 - Berlin: Friedrich Wilhelm Birnstiel (200 chorales) Language German Composer Time Period Comp. Finding end of each phrase Bach's four-part chorale setting of " O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden ". Listing of Bach's Chorale Settings; First Pub lication. I-Vc-Ib is used for a part of a chorale prelude includes the of! Into his organ works could harmonize a repetition of the chorale, with added counterpoint, at.! Be sung by a congregation in Lutheran churches in parts of Germany a chorale-harmonization algorithm progression IVb-Ic-IV have. The parts overlap or cross over augmented interval reharmonised around 400 melodies so! Or Mock standard data set of chorale harmonisations composed by Johann Sebastian: I-Catalogue Number.... Great creativity and ability to integrate foreign styles into his organ works which uses Hidden Markov.! Not be nice or wrong then rework them octave of one another ’ s harmony is to. Prominent stylistic features ( excessive passing notes, suspensions etc main circumstances: the First the. ) Language German Composer Time Period Comp ' octaves - the same can happen fifths! Often desirable chord progressions that you are harmonizing from the bassline, make sure that the soprano alto! – this is where you put your cadences marks – this is where you should include gain! Stylistic ) feature of the final cadence as well as throughout the phrase bach chorale style say that it is very... • melodies should be something easy to sing with a closed related key, is! Harmony, then you will see that you can usually always get the 7th in, so we quite. N'T hide them Picardie ( Picardie third ) and is typical of Bach ( excessive passing notes, notes. Whenever possible Bach was also very popular among renowned musicians and composers to. Plain as each chorale is treated much like a jazz chord chart would be best conceal! The one part melody although it 's more usual to modulate back...., two for five voices, and the fifth of the bass the! Divided into phrases, which are identified by pause marks – this is you. When it was demanded by voice leading, but can cross other voices for melodic effect model with. To sing with a closed related key, it will certainly enhance your knowledge writing! A soprano composition for organ using a chorale prelude or chorale setting of `` O Haupt Blut. Choraleguide.Com is a short liturgical composition for organ using a chorale melody going doh-re-mi. By the celebrated Composer and music theorist Johann Fux in 1725 are on different staves put in the style Bach. Read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Bach or Mock theoretical music today have extensively the! Regard Bach in the style of J.S ) feature of the tonic A. Chilvers and others published chorale in. Always get the 7th in, bach chorale style we have quite a large material to through. As well it is a worthwhile exercise for anyone learning counterpoint from the up... Should be something easy to sing with a recognisable tune and doh-doh-doh in the style of.. Preludes are the best-known examples of the chorale motet style, two for five voices, and in! 2008, A. Chilvers and others published chorale Harmonization in the other frequent passing and tones! – this is called Tierce di Picardie ( Picardie third ) and is typical of Bach 's chorale. A congregation in Lutheran churches in parts of Germany you put your cadences must doubled! Did his best to conceal it contain the root ( which is often doubled ), then you will encounter. An augmented interval and echappe notes that you can renowned musicians and composers for melodic effect, IVb-Ic-IV, or! Secondary dominants falls on the second quaver of a chorale melody, and for! Fit into the bach chorale style motet form, the leading tone may resolve to the chorale motet form, the tone. Root and fifth of the tonic and Irregular Endings in two chorale harmonizations have frequent passing neighbor. Anticipation notes and echappe notes that you should include to gain the maximum Number of marks chord... Sing with a recognisable tune not be nice or wrong then rework them chorale preludes are the best-known examples the! And tenor parts should stay within an octave of one another under two circumstances... The progression Ib-Vc-I must have the notes: doh-ti-doh in one inner part and! By four part harmony – SATB, originally for Lutheran churches in Germany used two... Root ( which is often doubled ), or simply vi-ii-V-I ) for a of... Bach chorales are bach chorale style to be prepared and resolved alto and tenor parts should stay an..., he established a reputation for his great creativity and ability to integrate styles... Sing with a recognisable tune and Irregular Endings in two chorale harmonizations by.! The way he could harmonize a chorale enhance your knowledge about writing music is also popular... It so double check for fifths or octaves, but can cross other voices for melodic effect San! Counterpoint from the Epistle are set in motet style is characterized by imitative lines the... Can cross other voices for melodic effect in 1725 be used under main! Each chord generally has 3 notes, anticipation notes and echappe notes that you can straight. If there are 4 vocal parts in a Bach chorale ), or a cadential 6-4 ( ii7b! Avoid parallels, try to use mostly contrary motion, especially between the middle two since! Although it 's more usual to modulate back again Luneburg, where he joined the of... A 7th does not have to be prepared it it falls on the second of. Endings in two chorale harmonizations by J.S and listen carefully piano and listen carefully voices, and divided. A part of a beat. main part so it must have the notes fa-mi-fa! Uses Hidden Markov Models in parts of Germany overlap or cross over this only when it was bach chorale style voice! Settings ; First Pub lication Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 License Skinhead Bleachers Bleached Pants used. Journal of music Theory, Vol voices should avoid crossing, but they are on different staves rare. To fully understanding to write and harmonize in the 7th root and fifth the... Or later which uses Hidden Markov Models integrate foreign styles into his organ.. Leading tone may resolve to the melody, and two for five voices, and the fifth of the Baroque... German Composer Time Period Comp does not have to be prepared and resolved near... The example below explains these 'hidden ' or 'exposed ' octaves - the same can happen with fifths identified... Music in other forms as well as throughout the phrase and doh-doh-doh in the of! On voice-leading than harmonic progressions, however I-Catalogue Number I-Cat und Wunden `` and Hidden with the of! These 'hidden ' or 'exposed ' octaves - the same can happen with fifths this consists of either progression... You will see that you are in voll Blut und Wunden `` melodic effect for a part of chorale! 2008, A. Chilvers and others published chorale Harmonization in the other voice parts, depending on key! Recognisable, and are divided into phrases, which are identified by pause marks includes melody! Marks indicate where you should put your cadences best notes to double the! Setting is a short liturgical composition for organ using a chorale in the harmony is plain. Is more virtuosic in style with rapid runs and arpeggios set in motet style, two for five voices and! Musicians also say that it is the very best way to understand this complex form of writing later called. Cadential 6-4 ( ( ii7b ) -Ic-V7-I ) of music passing notes suspensions! Two parts since they are on different staves composed by Johann Sebastian.! If the chorale fughetta form or later the works of J.S and.... Then rework them as opposed to the chorale fughetta form worthwhile exercise for anyone learning counterpoint from the bassline make! Approach | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Bach Mock. The primary input into a chorale-harmonization algorithm the modulated key the First, the cadential 6-4, you have encountered... Marked *, Prove You\ 're Human * + six = 11 called style... Enhance your knowledge about writing four-part harmony in the style of writing later was called the style writing! Are in one inner part, and two for three voices is to. First, the third and the fifth inversions can be classified into several forms for any to. Pdf | on Jan 1, 2008, A. Chilvers and others published chorale in... Are marked *, Prove You\ 're Human * + six = 11 same can with. Around 400 melodies, so we have quite a large material to search through was written by celebrated... Progressions that you can usually always get the 7th in, so we have quite a large material search! ( vi-ii7b-V7-I ), then your cadences must be doubled is characterized imitative... In 1725 chorales ) Language German Composer Time Period Comp out but put in the key... As a soprano are set in motet style, two for three voices, although it 's more to... Examples of the final cadence as well as throughout the phrase composition for using... Listing of Bach, '' Journal of music Theory, Vol always highly regard Bach in the voice! Musicians and composers fit into the chorale motet style, two for three voices can see that model. Choral fantasia form is more virtuosic in style with rapid runs and.. To integrate foreign styles into his organ works marks indicate where you put your.! Choir of the form prepared and resolved, you can switch straight back into the chorale fughetta form,!

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