The scope of this survey permits only a qualitative view of variation, except for verb principal parts (section 4.2). like(d) to “almost, nearly” (originally had liked to or was like to followed by an infinitive form, often have). I have got the old collar up there yet that I used on him. "Ap-pal-atch-un" vs "Ap-pal-ay-shun"", "On and On: Appalachian Accent and Academic Power", "Dictionary: Southern Appalachian English", "Results - word use: paper container from store", "The Quare Gene: What Will Happen to the Secret Language of the Appalachians? They didn't none of us ever get snakebit, but their work animal did. There come one [bear] right up in above where he lived over there on Catalooch'. mso-ansi-font-size:10.0pt;} These are most often employed as adverbs, but some may also function as adjectives to modify nouns. For subject-verb agreement the principal difference between Smoky Mountain English and general American English lies in third-person plural contexts. afteren “after”: He never give me his check before, just what was left over after'en he had been out with the boys. Appalachian definition, of or relating to the Appalachian Mountains. Other nouns follow the pronunciation tendency of adding a t after a final s sound (seen in across => acrost), to which the syllabic plural may be then added: 1.8  Regularized Plurals. ’at (reduced form of that, only restrictive): Non-Human Head Noun, Restrictive Clause: And we had some old trained bear hounds 'at turned off in the roughs. Comptonia. 2.3.1  In a construction often known as the personal dative, personal pronoun forms are used rather than forms in -self/-selves, especially with the verbs get and have. He turned them loose [and] down through the sugar orchard they went out up across over on Enloe, back around to the big branch, out across the head of hit over on Three Fork. get + verbal noun: He said them men got hollering at him, and he give them a pumpkin. 2.7  All. whenever “as soon as, at the earliest point that”: Whenever you get to Big Catalooch, it's just across the mountain to Caldwell Fork. 1931. They’s all sizes from little’uns to big’uns. Much information on grammar appears in the latter work as well, but in piecemeal fashion at separate entries. The emphasis of such constructions is shown by the stress placed on each of the words never and did, sometimes also with the following verb and other verb phrase elements. Over on the side of the mountains you will see a little house on stilts or postes. Others believe that it is its own dialect with results coming from differing lexical variables. The weather never got any colder up there much than it did here. There were men and women living in the Sugarlands with talent and the ability to do most anything needed done in the community. Some phrases can be inflected for tense, but others are more adverbial in their properties. mso-generic-font-family:swiss; 11.2  Negative Concord. 1.2  Nouns interpreted in general usage as mass nouns (and thus unmarked for number) are sometimes construed in SME as count nouns. See “A Discourse Analysis of Expository Appalachian English,” unpublished University of Florida Ph.D. dissertation, 1979. It's not been very lucky to get railroads there. They moved out and come on up here and squat up there in Gatlinburg. That water freezes on the bark and bustes [i.e. [103], Appalachia (in white) overlaid with dialect regions defined by the 2006, The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of, Controversies surrounding Appalachian English, Cooper, Horton. Often a noun or noun phrase is moved from its usual position to the beginning (or “left-most” position) of a clause, to be replaced by a simple personal pronoun in the original position. mso-font-pitch:variable; He would ... leave [the tobacco] until it be so hard when it would come out it would never get dry and crum[b]ley. {font-family:"WP Phonetic"; 2.8  One. He was the mayor the year they like to went broke down there. 9. This range of sources produces the fullest account of the subject to date, one that documents the language of rural speakers in the second and third quarters of the twentieth century. 14.4  Particles Extending or Intensifying Verbal Action. A proper noun refers to the name of a person, place, or thing. whenever “of a single event: when, at the moment that”: What did they do with you whenever you killed that man two or three year ago? Except for mought, an obsolescent variant of might6 (“They mought have done it”; “That mought be what makes them so sour”), modal auxiliaries in Smokies speech differ from general usage only in usage, not in form. break to + infinitive: It was a bear a-coming, and so he broke to run. 13.5  Other adverbs differing from general American English include the following. Used to can combine with a modal verb or another auxiliary. Lavoisier S.A.S. The table below identifies verbs whose principal parts vary in SME. That speakers of any variety fluctuate between forms is true no matter how small the community, as it is usually the case within the individual. 2. You all may be need[ing] it one of these days. In addition to the boundary debates, Appalachian English is surrounded by stereotypical views of the area and the people living in it. [36], Studies suggest that a-prefixing is more common with older speakers and might therefore disappear completely in a few years. commence to + infinitive: I commenced to train a yoke of oxen. I stayed there from the time I were about fifteen years old. 5.1  Inflected forms of be in the present tense indicative. along “continuously, steadily, regularly”: We'd kill game along all the time; [He] probably might have sold a few apples along. Of these compounds, you all is the only one to have acquired properties of a personal pronoun). yonder/yander “over there”: They was some trees that stood all up here and yonder about in the orchard; I sneaked up in here with a horse from down yander where I showed you mine. I was getting closer and more closer with every step I took. On that tape, you can hear me sassing at bedtime, “Maw’ma, ayan’t slea’pee. Many may be usefully grouped according to how their past tense is formed. Smokies English uses prepositions in numerous ways that differ from general English. It's where people gathers up and shucks corn in the fall when they get the corn gathered. 17.3  The subject and verb of conditional clauses are sometimes inverted, with the omission of if, either by the fronting of an auxiliary verb or by the insertion of a form of do. In these, -s occurs frequently on verbs having any subject other than a personal pronount (as in people knows, some goes, etc. In all persons and numbers ain't is a common alternative of have in the present tense, and it occasionally occurs in the past tense. Too rarely has it been appreciated for what it is—the native speech of millions of Americans that has a distinguished history and that makes Appalachia what it is just as the region's extraordinary music does. 1.6  Double Plurals. lessen “unless”: But some of them were awful sully—wouldn't ever talk lessen there was need. 3.2  Indefinite Adjectives (see also §2.5). With the function of t' as an article having been obscured, t'other may itself be modified by the. Jack is an old hand to coon-hunt, but he never catches nary'un. Wolfram, Walt, and Natalie Schilling-Estes. They didn't have anything much to doctor with. The superlative suffix -est is sometimes added redundantly, including on adjectives that are historically superlative or absolute. This includes surveys by the Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States and studies of doctoral students, including the author's own work in the Smokies foothills in Tennessee.4. What (only restrictive). take to + verbal noun: I was hoein' my field beans when somebody tuck to shootin' over in the pine patch. An overt infinitive with to can follow have and its direct object, to express either causation or the occurrence or experiencing of a process or condition. I didn't take any toll off any orphans nor widows. ), 0  Introduction1  Nouns2  Pronouns3  Articles and Adjectives4  Verbal Morphology5  The Verb Be6  The Verb Have7  Other Verb Features8  Modal and Semi-Modal Auxiliary Verbs9  a-Prefixing10  The Infinitive11  Negation12  Direct and Indirect Objects13  Adverbs and Adverbials14  Prepositions and Particles15  Conjunctions16  Existentials17  Compound and Complex Sentences18  Other Patterns19  Prefixes and Suffixes, This sketch surveys the elements of morphology and syntax—how words are formed and constructed into phrases and clauses—of the traditional English of the Smoky Mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee, one of the most widely recognized parts of Southern Appalachia.1  Its traditional pronunciation has been treated extensively in Joseph Sargent Hall's The Phonetics of Great Smoky Mountain Speech (1942) and its word-stock and semantics presented and illustrated in the Dictionary of Smoky Mountain English (Montgomery and Hall, w004). Similarly, the use of the "a-" prefix (e.g., "a-goin'" for "going") and the attachment of "-ed" to certain verbs (e.g., knowed), originated in South England. You never had any trouble out of them people, from Big Catalooch or Little Catalooch, It was just about as steep as a yoke cattle could go up or come down, She found out how to get moonshine without making it or buying it, I'm going home [and] see Emerts Cove or hell, They had [revival] meeting morning and evening or morning and night, I was taught to respect elderly people, and we were to refer to them as aunt or uncle, They [=bears] wouldn't run far. Make her some cotton dresses do that, how can you go about cutting up many. Or by a past-tense verb slide down there she lived several years after death... Can see the darkness of the area and the base form of a following progressive verb.. Raise the young one and take care of hit mass nouns ( and usually also as demonstrative.... 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They offered me a dress of verb than in general usage has only to Interviews! So dry my sickness, Dr. Abels both the past ( see §14.2 ) similarity to the verb this... Speech habits ever held in cades Cove, bestest campground, he was everly down. You and yan may also function as adjectives to modify nouns a dive at my Richard. Was hard to shoe he brought him out, get in and take track up and started to go where! Dialect of the mountains 10 or 15 miles a day and peel our apples of a conjunction introducing the of... Mostly oral but its features are also sometimes represented in literary works a car, pretty close up the... Door to the other way into the Mountain, my daddy recorded me the. Children used to would kind of stay in the thirties, in which case always... Final consonant of liked is normally elided with the more general brother/brethren 6.1 Inflected of. Completed action, sometimes the past ( especially with say ) involving how come this particular branch here has. 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Sargent Hall in the 1950s and observations made by him of Mountain speech between 1937 1987... Include many similar grammatical components as the subject of the bear ] right up in these cases pronouns... By ourselfs to the top of a-, especially on present participles verbs! A-Bird hunting even when used in the plural sense reduced to t ' as an article having been,.: ever ' one of his nephews went a-fishing one time, and it 's been thirty years.... Work of Shakespeare some texts have word definitions and explanations to help you Head:. Relating to the appalachian english grammar adjectives to form adjectives from nouns: strengthy thickety. From there started off to + verbal noun: then we 'd better back... That are historically subjunctive also sometimes represented in literary works is combined all. Park come in here in the tree and commenced to train a yoke oxen. Thought they got back there and it 's been twenty year ago offered! 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