A new constitution was drafted, which made the legislative and executive branches much more equal in power and which was much less prescriptive in outlining powers, duties, and jurisdictions. [64], East of the divide the Missouri River, which is formed by the confluence of the Jefferson, Madison, and Gallatin Rivers near Three Forks,[65] flows due north through the west-central part of the state to Great Falls. [184], According to the 2010 Census, 89.4% of the population was White (87.8% non-Hispanic White), 6.3% American Indian and Alaska Native, 2.9% Hispanics and Latinos of any race, 0.6% Asian, 0.4% Black or African American, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 0.6% from some other race, and 2.5% from two or more races. However, farmers faced a number of problems. A former member of the troupe who lived in Butte buttonholed Howard at an after-show party, asking him to compose a song about Montana and got another partygoer, the city editor for the Butte Miner newspaper, Charles C. Cohan, to help. Heron, in the west, receives the most precipitation, 34.70 inches (881 mm). Census). Official State Tree of Montana. The students were Indian children and the children of Fort Owen employees. [101], Areas managed by the National Park Service include:[102], Montana is a large state with considerable variation in geography, topography and altitude, and the climate is, therefore, equally varied. Montana is the only state in the union without a modern naval ship named in its honor. Massive debt was one. However, the most well-known nickname associated with Montana is “The Treasure State”, which originated in the mid-1800s, when it became apparent that Montana’s mountains were home to a plethora of rich mineral reserves, such as gold, silver, and sapphires, which later became the gemstone symbol for Montana, paying respect to Montana’s nickname. The first formal school on record was at Fort Owen in Bitterroot valley in 1862. In addition, Montana was going through a temporary period of higher-than-average precipitation. The court hears cases arising under the Montana Workers' Compensation Act, and is the court of original jurisdiction for reviews of orders and regulations issued by the Montana Department of Labor and Industry. When the Soviets removed their missiles from Cuba, President John F. Kennedy said the Soviets backed down because they knew he had an "ace in the hole", referring directly to the Minuteman missiles in Montana. Other federally recognized sites include the Little Bighorn National Monument, Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area, Big Hole National Battlefield, and the National Bison Range. [163] Overall, anti-German and antilabor sentiment increased and created a movement that led to the passage of the Montana Sedition Act the following February. 300. [49] Tablelands are often topped with argillite gravel and weathered quartzite, occasionally underlain by shale. [67] The stretch of river between Fort Benton and the Fred Robinson Bridge at the western boundary of Fort Peck Reservoir was designated a National Wild and Scenic River in 1976. [185] The largest European ancestry groups in Montana as of 2010 are: German (27.0%), Irish (14.8%), English (12.6%), Norwegian (10.9%), French (4.7%), and Italian (3.4%). According to the 2000 Census, 94.8% of the population aged five and older speak English at home. In 1985, the Montana Legislature passed a law allowing towns with fewer than 5,500 residents and unincorporated communities with fewer than 2,500 to levy a resort tax if more than half the community's income came from tourism. [67] The Missouri enters North Dakota near Fort Union,[68] having drained more than half the land area of Montana (82,000 square miles (210,000 km2)). However, public opinion grew increasingly negative toward them in the 1890s, and nearly half of the state's Asian population left the state by 1900. [210] It mandates that all schools teach American Indian history, culture, and heritage from preschool through college. [127] While the treaty established what later became the Flathead Indian Reservation, trouble with interpreters and confusion over the terms of the treaty led Whites to believe the Bitterroot Valley was opened to settlement, but the tribal nations disputed those provisions. The Big Hole Valley,[31] Bitterroot Valley,[32] Gallatin Valley,[33] Flathead Valley,[34][35] and Paradise Valley[36] have extensive agricultural resources and multiple opportunities for tourism and recreation. The amount of property tax owed is not determined solely by the property's value. To Hon. [268] There are 24 areas where snowmobile trails are maintained, most also offering ungroomed trails. [118], The land in Montana east of the continental divide was part of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. The Worker's Compensation Court has statewide jurisdiction and holds trials in Billings, Great Falls, Helena, Kalispell, and Missoula. It allowed the legislature to increase the number of justices by two, which the legislature did in 1979. [157] Also, most settlers were from wetter regions, unprepared for the dry climate, lack of trees, and scarce water resources. [60] Farther downstream, it is joined by the Flathead River before entering Idaho near Lake Pend Oreille. [291] In 1914, Montana granted women the vote. Major battles occurred in Montana during Red Cloud's War, the Great Sioux War of 1876, and the Nez Perce War and in conflicts with Piegan Blackfeet. There are also nine other statewide elected offices in the executive branch: Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Secretary of State, State Auditor (who also serves as Commissioner of Securities and Insurance), and Superintendent of Public Instruction. On August 1, 1917, he was dragged from his boarding house by masked vigilantes, and hanged from a railroad trestle, considered a lynching. This pattern shifted, beginning with the 1988 election, when Montana elected a Republican governor for the first time since 1964 and sent a Republican to the U.S. Senate for the first time since 1948. The name Montana comes from a Spanish word meaning mountainous. [20] Other major mountain ranges west of the divide include the Cabinet Mountains, the Anaconda Range, the Missions, the Garnet Range, the Sapphire Mountains, and the Flint Creek Range. Ranked 45th in population (by the 2010 Census) it is 19th in native people,[190] who are 6.5% of the state's population—the sixth-highest percentage of all fifty. [79] The Yellowstone joins the Missouri in North Dakota just east of Fort Union. In 1942, the US Army established Camp Rimini near Helena for the purpose of training sled dogs in winter weather. [11] This time, Rep. Samuel Cox, also of Ohio, objected to the name. [18], The Bitterroot Mountains—one of the longest continuous ranges in the Rocky Mountain chain from Alaska to Mexico[19]—along with smaller ranges, including the Coeur d'Alene Mountains and the Cabinet Mountains, divide the state from Idaho. Montana and South Dakota are the only states to share a land border which is not traversed by a paved road. [10] When Ashley presented a bill to establish a temporary government in 1864 for a new territory to be carved out of Idaho, he again chose Montana Territory. WASHINGTON, D.C. Nov. 7, 1889 [145] In the 1880s, Helena (the state capital) had more millionaires per capita than any other United States city. Farmers of Irish, Scots, and English roots also settled in Montana. This extremely disproportionate ratio of residents paying taxes vs. non-residents using state funded services and infrastructure makes Montana's resort tax crucial in order to safely maintain heavily used roads and highways, as well as protect and preserve state parks. [103], The coldest temperature on record for Montana is also the coldest temperature for the contiguous United States. [166] In combination, these laws criminalized criticism of the U.S. government, military, or symbols through speech or other means. Another nickname for the state is Big Sky Country. One of the more popular nicknames for Montana, 'The Treasure State' or 'Treasure State' legend was featured on standard license plates from 1950 to 1966. A 1974 state severance tax on coal (which varied from 20 to 30%) was upheld by the Supreme Court of the United States in Commonwealth Edison Co. v. Montana, 453 U.S. 609 (1981). Neither justices nor the clerk are term limited. [290] Montana voters amended the 1889 constitution 37 times between 1889 and 1972. Previously, these cold spells had killed off bark beetles, but these are now attacking the forests of western Montana. [259], Montana has been a destination for its world-class trout fisheries since the 1930s. [202], According to the Pew Forum, the religious affiliations of the people of Montana are: Protestant 47%, Catholic 23%, LDS (Mormon) 5%, Jehovah's Witness 2%, Buddhist 1%, Jewish 0.5%, Muslim 0.5%, Hindu 0.5% and nonreligious at 20%. It is also of American origin, where its meaning is "a state name". The nickname "Big Sky Country" reminds residents of Montana's open lands and pioneering way. Submit your funny nicknames and cool gamertags and copy the best from the list. Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time? 300. [185] Many of Montana's historic logging communities originally attracted people of Scottish, Scandinavian, Slavic, English, and Scots-Irish descent. The Montana Supreme Court struck down the nonpartisan law in 1911 on technical grounds, but a new law was enacted in 1935 which barred political parties from endorsing, making contributions to, or making expenditures on behalf of or against judicial candidates. [48] The soil of intermountain basins usually consists of clay, gravel, sand, silt, and volcanic ash, much of it laid down by lakes which covered the region during the Oligocene 33 to 23 million years ago. They are overseen by District Court judges. The Sugarbeeters have what is perhaps the most unique mascot in … Six of Montana's smaller four-year schools are members of the Frontier Conference. The Water Court adjudicates water rights claims under the Montana Water Use Act of 1973, and has statewide jurisdiction. [171] In addition, the Council of Defense was made a state agency with the power to prosecute and punish individuals deemed in violation of the Act. Heavy snowstorms may occur from September through May, though most snow falls from November to March. In December 1959, Malmstrom AFB was selected as the home of the new Minuteman I intercontinental ballistic missile. This changed in 1959 when Lee Enterprises bought several Montana newspapers. Montanas nickname is the treasure state and it got its nickname from its extensive mineral reserves. Higher education is overseen by a governor-appointed Board of Regents, which in turn appoints a commissioner of higher education. More than 40 spent time in prison. In researching the nickname for Montana, we searched for new and old nicknames. The first school term started in early winter and lasted only until February 28. [191] Other counties with large Native American populations include Blaine, Cascade, Hill, Missoula, and Yellowstone Counties. In turn, pro-War groups formed, such as the Montana Council of Defense, created by Governor Samuel V. Stewart and local "loyalty committees". The state also has a small Métis population, and 1990 census data indicated that people from as many as 275 different tribes lived in Montana. Among Montana's most historically prominent senators are Thomas J. Walsh (serving from 1913 to 1933), who was President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt's choice for attorney general when he died; Burton K. Wheeler (serving from 1923 to 1947), an oft-mentioned presidential candidate and strong supporter of isolationism; Mike Mansfield, the longest-serving Senate majority leader in U.S. history; Max Baucus (served 1978 to 2014), longest-serving U.S. senator in Montana history, and the senator who shepherded the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act through the Senate in 2010; and Lee Metcalf (served 1961 to 1978), a pioneer of the environmental movement. This is a state that requires no effort to escape modern urban life. There have also been long-term shifts of party control. The legislature meets in the Montana State Capitol in Helena in odd-numbered years for 90 days, beginning the first weekday of the year. [174], In 1940, Jeannette Rankin was again elected to Congress. Montana is one of few geographic areas in the world whose rivers form parts of three major watersheds (i.e. [104], Average daytime temperatures vary from 28 °F or −2.2 °C in January to 84.5 °F or 29.2 °C in July. Gold output from 1862 through 1876 reached $144 million; silver then became even more important. 300. [236] James Willard Schultz ("Apikuni") from Browning is most noted for his prolific stories about Blackfeet life and his contributions to the naming of prominent features in Glacier National Park.[237]. Of Montana's House delegates, Jeannette Rankin was the first woman to hold national office in the United States when she was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1916. Senators serve four-year terms, while Representatives serve two-year terms. North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, and Idaho . Beginning in 1919, Montana moved to district, rather than at-large, elections for its two House members. Democrats hold one of the state's two U.S. Senate seats with Jon Tester, as well as the governorship with Steve Bullock. The Montana Supreme Court has the authority to declare acts of the legislature and executive unconstitutional under either the Montana or U.S. constitutions. The southern third of the Bitterroot range blends into the Continental Divide. It is the fourth-largest state by area, the eighth-least populous state, and the third-least densely populated state. Montanans are some of the best people on Earth, and that means they aren’t afraid to have a laugh at their own expense. Trapping of assorted fur-bearing animals is allowed in certain seasons and many opportunities exist for migratory waterfowl and upland bird hunting.[263][264]. The state Senate is, as of 2019, controlled by the Republicans 32 to 18, and the State House of Representatives at 59 to 41. In the 2008 presidential election, Montana was considered a swing state and was ultimately won by Republican John McCain, albeit by a narrow margin of two percent.[308]. There they join the Saskatchewan River, which ultimately empties into Hudson Bay.[27]. [159], By 1910, homesteaders filed claims on over five million acres, and by 1923, over 93 million acres were farmed. Montana eventually became home to the largest ICBM field in the U.S. covering 23,500 square miles (61,000 km2). [163], In the wake of the legislative action in 1918, emotions rose. Large-scale battles revolved around the giant Anaconda Copper company, based in Butte and controlled by Rockefeller interests, until it closed in the 1970s. Vegetation of the state includes lodgepole pine, ponderosa pine, Douglas fir, larch, spruce, aspen, birch, red cedar, hemlock, ash, alder, rocky mountain maple and cottonwood trees. Montana Shakespeare in the Parks has been performing free, live theatrical productions of Shakespeare and other classics throughout Montana and the Northwest region since 1973. [105][verification needed] The variation in geography leads to great variation in temperature. Major events include: There are no major league sports franchises in Montana due to the state's relatively small and dispersed population, but a number of minor league teams play in the state. Both Montana nicknames come from an advertising booklet made by the Montana Bureau of Agriculture, Labor, and Industry. Baseball is the minor-league sport with the longest heritage in the state, and Montana is home to three Minor League Baseball teams, all members of the Pioneer League: the Billings Mustangs, Great Falls Voyagers, and Missoula Osprey. Many Native Americans were among those who served, including soldiers from the Crow Nation who became Code Talkers. The two largest schools, the University of Montana and Montana State University, are members of the Big Sky Conference and have enjoyed a strong athletic rivalry since the early twentieth century. During the war, about 30 Japanese Fu-Go balloon bombs were documented to have landed in Montana, though no casualties nor major forest fires were attributed to them. Montana authors have documented the land would be paid and the children of Fort union,... 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