Haslett C, Douglas JG, Chalmers SR, Weighhill A, and Munro JF. Int J Cancer 2004;10;109:949-54. 6-15-1989;129(5):381-388. View abstract. 2016;2(2):83-88. Effect of a compound containing isoflavones, primrose oil and vitamin E in two different doses on climacteric symptoms. View abstract. Woltil, H. A., van Beusekom, C. M., Schaafsma, A., Okken, A., and Muskiet, F. A. Usually, mild side effects like headache, nausea, upset stomach and loose stools, are experienced by some of the users. View abstract. Prostagland Leukotrienes Med 1982;8:273-285. With every form of treatment comes the possibility of side effects as every persons reaction system is different. A single-blind, randomized, bi-centric clinical trial. Evening Primrose oil, a dietary prostaglandin precursor diminishes vascular reactivity to resin and angiotensin II in rats. Gupta H, Pawar D, Riva A, et al. Jamal GA and Carmichael H. The effects of gamma-linolenic acid on human diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. View abstract. Eur J Cancer 2001;37:402-13. Horner NK, Lampe JW. Swapan S, Sabyasachi B Nath GD. Farzaneh F, Fatehi S, Sohrabi MR, Alizadeh K. The effect of oral evening primrose oil on menopausal hot flashes: a randomized clinical trial. Effect of primrose oil on serum lipids and blood pressure in hyperlipidemic subjects. Z.Hautkr. Effects of essential fatty acids on cyclical mastalgia and non-cyclical breast disorders. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in treatment of acute remitting multiple sclerosis. A systematic review of randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials. View abstract. Eur J Gastroenterology and Hepatology 1991;3(1):87-90. View abstract. Liu, H. and Zhou, J. F. [Xianbai buyang Huanwu decoction used for treating hypertension with kidney qi deficiency and blood stasis]. Prostaglandins and premenstrual syndrome. Huntley, A. Drug-herb interactions with herbal medicines for menopause. Ferrando, J. Effect of exercise on FA profiles in n-3 FA-supplemented and -nonsupplemented premenopausal women. J Agric.Food Chem 9-22-2010;58(18):9960-9966. Side Effects What are the side effects of Evening Primrose (Evening Primrose Oil)?. Evening primrose oil as a treatment of premenstrual syndrome. In fact, serotonin is often referred to as the "happy" or "feel-good" hormone. Lis-Balchin, M. Parallel placebo-controlled clinical study of a mixture of herbs sold as a remedy for cellulite. View abstract. Br Med J 1978;ii:1390-1391. View abstract. View abstract. View abstract. Treatment of atopic eczema with evening primrose oil. CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: Mayo Clin Proc. Shuster J. However, you still need to use it with caution, especially if you're pregnant or under medical treatment. 2018 Feb 9:1-5. Most of the time it happens because the dose is too high. EPO capsules (500–1,300 mg) or oil (150 ml) are available from high-street retailers. View abstract. Cochrane Database Sys Rev 2009;(1):CD004416. Tanzan Health Res Bull 2007;9(3):196-201. Evening primrose oil is generally safe when consumed at the recommended dosages. J Reprod.Med 1983;28(7):465-468. Taylor, M. Botanicals: medicines and menopause. View abstract. Because evening primrose oil may cause uterine contractions, it is not recommended for pregnant women. Br.J Hosp.Med 1990;43(5):330-332. Early research shows that taking a specific evening primrose product 3 grams daily for 6 months improves dry eye symptoms in women wearing soft contact lenses. J Am Acad.Dermatol. Evening Primrose Oil Side Effects. Early research shows that taking 4.8 grams of evening primrose per day for 12 weeks does not add to the weight loss achieved with a reduced calorie diet in obese women. View abstract. View abstract. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Essential Fatty Acids 2007;77:101-3. View abstract. Barber A. Lancet 1-28-1995;345(8944):260-261. View abstract. Read more: 8 Warning Signs of Depression You Shouldn't Ignore. A motor skill disorder marked by clumsiness (developmental coordination disorder or DCD). Schalin-Karrila M, Mattila L, Jansen CT, Uotila P. Evening primrose oil in the treatment of atopic eczema: effect on clinical status, plasma phospholipid fatty acids and circulating blood prostaglandins. Aust N Z J Surg 1994;64(5):329-331. Darsareh, F., Taavoni, S., Joolaee, S., and Haghani, H. Effect of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Evening primrose oil contains GLA (gamma-linolenic acid). 2012;27(3):16-17. Lancet 1995;345(8963):1463-1468. 2009;16(3):e407-e429. Gehring W, Bopp R, Rippke F, and Gloor M. Effect of topically applied evening primrose oil on epidermal barrier function in atopic dermatitis as a function of vehicle. Gruenwald, J., Graubaum, H. J., and Busch, R. Evaluation of the non-inferiority of a fixed combination of thyme fluid- and primrose root extract in comparison to a fixed combination of thyme fluid extract and primrose root tincture in patients with acute bronchitis. Diabet Med 1990;7(4):319-323. In another clinical trial, EPO had no effect on PMS symptoms. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2008;31(3):141-146. View abstract. View abstract. Asthma. Ann Rheum.Dis 1989;48(11):965-966. For example, an October 2016 research paper published in Pharmacological Reviews assessed several herbal supplements and their role in women's health. Taking a combination of fish oil and evening primrose daily for 12 weeks does appear to improve some symptoms in children 7-12 years-old. View abstract. View abstract. Jenkins AP, Green AT, and Thompson RP. A double-blind placebo controlled trial of Efamol Marine on skin and joint symptoms of psoriatic arthritis. A randomized controlled trial of EPO for mastalgia. 1993;27(12):1475-1477. Most women use either over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers or home remedies. Horrobin, D. F. The importance of gamma-linolenic acid and prostaglandin E1 in human nutrition and medicine. Reden, J., El-Hifnawi, D., Zahnert, T., and Hummel, T. The effect of a herbal combination of primrose, gentian root, vervain, elder flowers, and sorrel on olfactory function in patients with a sinonasal olfactory dysfunction. In clinical trials, it has been shown to relieve morning stiffness and reduce the need for medications in rheumatoid arthritis sufferers, according to results published in the journal Advances in Pharmacological Sciences in May 2016. Jalloh MA, Gregory PJ, Hein D, et al. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2007;28:82-91. 2000;(2):CD001257. Vaddadi KS, Courtney P, Gilleard CJ, Manku MS, and Horrobin DF. Mansel RE, Pye JK, and Hughes LE. Copyright Policy Campbell ID, Stewart JCM, Royle GT, Taylor I. However, more research is needed to confirm these risks. Can Fam.Physician 2002;48:1789-1797. Evening primrose oil may cause low blood pressure. Rock, E. and DeMichele, A. Nutritional approaches to late toxicities of adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer survivors. Menopause: a review of botanical dietary supplements (;Provisional abstract). 2008;57(8):542-544. Coskery G, Cowley N Allen R. The effect of dietary supplementation with evening primrose oil on skin surface texture in atopic dermatitis. Berth-Jones, J., Thompson, J., and Graham-Brown, R. A. View abstract. View abstract. View abstract. Roemheld-Hamm B, Dahl NV. Sinn N, Bryan J. Oliwiecki S and Burton JL. View abstract. View abstract. 1999. Interactions between essential fatty acids and steroid hormones. 1998;36(7):363-366. Biagi, P. L., Bordoni, A., Masi, M., Ricci, G., Fanelli, C., Patrizi, A., and Ceccolini, E. A long-term study on the use of evening primrose oil (Efamol) in atopic children. Evening primrose oil: a panacea? Vermani, M., Milosevic, I., Smith, F., and Katzman, M. A. View abstract. Lancet 1985;2:373-7. J Nutr Med 1991;2:259-264. Indian J Dermatol.Venereol.Leprol. Kleijnen J. Puolakka J, Makarainen L, Viinikka L, and Ylikorkala O. Biochemical and clinical effects of treating the premenstrual syndrome with prostaglandin synthesis precursors. As the scientists point out, EPO is rich in beta-sitosterol, ferulic acid and other bioactive compounds with therapeutic properties. Gateley, C. A., Maddox, P. R., Pritchard, G. A., Sheridan, W., Harrison, B. J., Pye, J. K., Webster, D. J., Hughes, L. E., and Mansel, R. E. Plasma fatty acid profiles in benign breast disorders. Diabet Med 1994;11:145-9. Am J Psychiatry 1986;143(7):912-914. 2017 Oct 4;6:85. van Doormaal, J. J., Idema, I. G., Muskiet, F. A., Martini, I. Topical gamma-linolenic acid therapy in atopic dermatitis: a clinical and biometric evaluation. Taking evening primrose oil along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Lancet 1-29-1983;1(8318):236-237. Swed J Biol Med 1986;4:8-11. 1978;17(2):67-76. A pregnancy complication marked by high blood pressure and protein in the urine (pre-eclampsia). Breast 2007;16(5):503-512. View abstract. BMJ 4-27-1996;312(7038):1096. Horrobin, D. F. The membrane phospholipid hypothesis as a biochemical basis for the neurodevelopmental concept of schizophrenia. Ann Surg Oncol. Jamal GA. 2002;79(3):195-207. View abstract. View abstract. Ther Adv Psychopharmacol. View abstract. View abstract. View abstract. The effect of essential fatty acid and specific vitamin supplements on vascular sensitivity in the mid trimester of human pregnancy. 2005;54(9):789-800. Br J Rheumatol 1991;30(5):370-372. Br J Surg. 1. Bendich A. Sharma N, Gupta A, Jha PK, Rajput P. Mastalgia cured! This remedy may also interact with anticonvulsants, according to an April 2018 report in Pharmacy Today. Attempts at dietary alteration of prostaglandin pathways in the management of pre-eclampsia. View abstract. The MSKCC and medical experts warn about its health risks, which range from mild to severe. Side Effects. Complement Ther Med 2013;21(5):473-80. Diabetes Care 1993;16:8-15. Uccella, R., Contini, A., and Sartorio, M. [Action of evening primrose oil on cardiovascular risk factors in insulin-dependent diabetics]. Online ahead of print. Larsson B, Jonasson A, and Fianu S. Evening primrose oil in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome. Endocr Res. What does the evidence tell us? 2010;50(5):e106-e115. Gamma-linolenic acid for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Placebo-controlled comparison to D-amphetamine. A movement disorder often caused by antipsychotic drugs (. View abstract. Treatment of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms: position statement of The North American Menopause Society. View abstract. J dermatol treat. If you take any medications, consult your doctor before using EPO. Rose DP, Connolly JM, Liu XH. View abstract. Early research shows that taking 18 grams of evening primrose per day does not affect liver size or survival in people with liver cancer. View abstract. Sholkens BA, Gehring D, Schlotte V, and et al. 2017 Jan;28(1):4-15. J Am Coll Nutrition 2000;19:3-12. View abstract. 1991;14(9):282. Ann Hematol. Menendez JA, del Mar Barbacid M, Montero S, et al. Infant development. J Educ Health Promot. Randomized trial comparing centchroman to evening primrose oil (letter). Effects of gamma-linolenic acid and oleic acid on paclitaxel cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells. View abstract. Takahashi, R., Inoue, J., Ito, H., and Hibino, H. Evening primrose oil and fish oil in non-insulin-dependent-diabetes. View abstract. A recent review analyzed several anti-inflammatory herbal medicines, including evening primrose oil. To be on the safe side, you should stop taking evening primrose oil at least 2 weeks before surgery. View abstract. 2009;12(5):394-401. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1988;14:291-7. Hosp Pharm 1996;31:1553-4. View abstract. Dietary gamma-linolenic acid lowers blood pressure and alters aortic reactivity and cholesterol metabolism in hypertension. Inflamm.Bowel.Dis 2002;8(3):174-179. The basic side effects of evening primrose are rare and include the mild cases of stomach pain, headaches, nausea, and diarrhea. It also doesn't appear to reduce the risk of developing high blood pressure in pregnant women when taken with fish oil. View abstract. Head RJ, McLennan PL, Raederstorff D, et al. Pharmaceutical J 1988;723-725. What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? Effect of Supplementation with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Micronutrients on Learning and Behavior Problems Associated with Child ADHD. Budeiri D, Li Wan Po A, Dornan JC. View abstract. 2021 Br Med Bull. Evening primrose oil benefits are said to include everything from PMS relief to better cardiovascular health. These medications are commonly prescribed to those suffering from depression. View abstract. View abstract. 2010;24(3):238-245. Wetzig, N. R. Mastalgia: a 3 year Australian study. Lets take a look at other precautions to be mindful of when using evening primrose oil. View abstract. View abstract. View abstract. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2002;67:1-12. Horrobin, D. F. Nutritional and medical importance of gamma-linolenic acid. View abstract. Down the primrose path: petechiae in a neonate exposed to herbal remedy for parturition. View abstract. Skogh, M. Atopic eczema unresponsive to evening primrose oil (linoleic and gamma- linolenic acids). View abstract. Warren G, McKendrick M, Peet M. The role of essential fatty acids in chronic fatigue syndrome. View abstract. Soeken, K. L., Miller, S. A., and Ernst, E. Herbal medicines for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review. The effects of essential fatty acid supplementation by Efamol in hyperactive children. J Am Diet.Assoc. Contact Lens Spectrum. Proc.2nd International Symposium on Premenstrual, Postpartum and Menopausal Mood Disorders 1987;abstract 44. Effects of safflower oil and evening primrose oil in men with a low dihomo-gamma-linolenic level. Hunter JO and Wilson AJ. 2012;3, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. View abstract. Black cohosh root? Prolonged postpartum course of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Manchester, England, April 1991. pg 89-96. Kiss, A. K., Filipek, A., Czerwinska, M., and Naruszewicz, M. Oenothera paradoxa defatted seeds extract and its bioactive component penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose decreased production of reactive oxygen species and inhibited release of leukotriene B4, interleukin-8, elastase, and myeloperoxidase in human neutrophils. Early research in children shows that applying evening primrose oil to water warts on the skin for 3 months might cause the lesions to disappear faster than doing nothing at all. View abstract. 2020;27(12):4844-4852. Sture, G. H. and Lloyd, D. H. Canine atopic disease: therapeutic use of an evening primrose oil and fish oil combination. Jaszewska, E., Kosmider, A., Kiss, A. K., and Naruszewicz, M. Oenothera paradoxa defatted seeds extract containing pentagalloylglucose and procyanidins potentiates the cytotoxicity of vincristine. Read more: The 10 Most Annoying Women's Health Issues and How to Fix Them. Dietary supplements and herbal remedies for premenstrual syndrome (PMS): a systematic research review of the evidence for their efficacy (Structured abstract). https://www.mca.gov.uk/whatsnew/epogam.htm. 2017 Mar 25;9(4). View abstract. View abstract. View abstract. Dove D, Johnson P. Oral evening primrose oil: its effect on length of pregnancy and selected intrapartum outcomes in low-risk nulliparous women (abstract). Barabino, S., Rolando, M., Camicione, P., Ravera, G., Zanardi, S., Giuffrida, S., and Calabria, G. Systemic linoleic and gamma-linolenic acid therapy in dry eye syndrome with an inflammatory component. 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