Health, Covid-19, the vaccine rollout and the pandemic's impact will still be the hottest issues of at least some months of 2021. The crushing impact of Franco on Catalonia’s regional identity was beyond anything previously seen. In 1714, after the war of Sucession, Catalonia had all its institutions, language and rights suppressed. Another vision of Spain, however, is plurinational, recognizing other nations in Spain, including Catalonia, the Basque Country, and Galicia. The region fought for the Second Republic in the Spanish Civil War from 1936 to 1939, but its defeat led to the Catalan language being outlawed under Francisco Franco’s 40-year military rule. For almost 40 years Catalonia was governed under military dictatorship. Plaça Sant Jaume has seen it all before. Rather than merely restore this autonomy, the new democratic constitution of 1978 diluted its significance by awarding self-government to all regions, some of which had no identity or culture of their own. Each of these has its own language, culture, and history, and all of them prefer a republic to the monarchy. Catalonia Royal La Romana is an exclusive adults-only resort located on the southern coast of the Dominican Republic bathed by the turquoise waters of the Caribbean Sea, where it witnesses the Caribbean sunset every afternoon. Comprising the Eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands, it borders Spain and Aragon to the West and France and Andorra to the North. With the establishment of the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939), the Generalitat was restored as a Catalan autonomous government. Amid a brutal repression, Spain was divided into two zones: the Republican zone (“zona In the Second Spanish Republic, Catalan lawmakers worked on the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia. On Thursday, Mr Castex said travel during hours of curfew was permitted for trips to the hospital or pharmacy, or if work hours required. Catalonia tried for years to get the Spanish gov't to live up to their promises for increased regional autonomy, and were consistently ignored. Journal of Catalan Studies 2008 65 Representing Catalan National Identity. Catalonia during the Spanish Second Republic and the Civil War Agustí Colomines i Companys Except during the First Republic (1873–74), the Second Republic (1931–36), and the Spanish Civil War (1936–39), Spain also always had a monarchy. So they held their referendum, because that was the only peaceful option left, and they were beaten by riot cops. After the Spanish Civil War, the Francoist dictatorship enacted repressive measures, abolishing Catalan self-government … But the tides turned in favour of the Catalan people in 1931 when the Second Spanish Republic’s constitution recognised Catalonia as a nation and Catalan as an official language of the republic. Alfonso subsequently went into exile, and the Second Republic, initially dominated by middle-class liberals and moderate socialists, ... and Catalonia became a key Republican stronghold. During the Second Republic, Spain had conceded autonomy to the culturally distinctive regions of the Basque Country, Catalonia, and Galicia. Though failing in Catalonia, the uprising by the Spanish military against the democratic order of the Second Republic triggered the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). Catalonia's independence movement — a brief history The end of freedom In the Second Spanish Republic, Catalan lawmakers worked on the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia. Catalonia has its own culture, with distinctive art and architectural styles, cuisine, literary traditions, holidays and festivals. Representing Catalan National Identity. The Second Republic (1931-1936) The birth of the Second Republic was the key moment in modern Spanish history. It was restored under the Second Spanish Republic (1931–39), abolished again by Francisco Franco, and restored again after his death in 1975. Ortega was speaking in the turbulent era of Spain’s Second Republic, just before the 1936-39 civil war, when Catalan secessionism briefly posed a challenge to Spain’s unity. It has always been the left republican vision of Spain. In fact, when the second republic was declared on April 14, Macià, who at the time was the president of Catalonia, proclaimed that Catalonia was a republic within the Iberian Federation, although this Catalan republic only managed to last a total of 3 days. Within days of Spain’s Second Republic forming in 1931, Catalans declared an independent republic within an ‘Iberian Federation’ but Madrid intervened again to quash this desire. But a special certificate would need to be produced as proof. In the 1930s the Second Republic granted self-government to Catalonia. 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